"On April 22nd and May 6th, by your vote, you will choose the path our country will take for the next five years. "This is how François Hollande's booklet of 60 Commitments for France begins. For the political parties, this is also the time to take back the lead in the field of digital technology and innovative companies. They all plan wide-ranging reforms to reindustrialise the country and boost innovation.
What is it really about? UP' has therefore examined the programmes of the main candidates and submits the results here. It's up to you to make your own opinion.
Second part: François Bayrou and Marine Le Pen
François Bayrou and innovation
"The question of innovation is mainly cultural," said François Bayrou. during his interview at Futurapolis (Le Point), an event dedicated to innovation and which was intended to be the "Davos of innovation". Its priority: innovation and the importance of linking scientific research to other cultural disciplines, stating that "it is in innovation that our destiny is played out".
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François Bayrou organised a dialogue on digital technology with four emblematic players in this sector on Tuesday 14 February during a public round table and webcast (Every Saturday, the Democratic Movement organizes round tables on campaign themes. These meetings take place at the Maison de la Chimie in Paris): "Digital technology is a leap forward in civilization that will require a cooperative sharing of knowledge. Innovation also starts at school. It is not only scientific, it is practical and artistic," he says. Unfortunately, students are unfortunately more often in a model of reproduction than creation. It's the famous "copy and paste". In addition, he mentioned a way to improve the performance of the research system: putting an end to the paperwork that takes up 50 % of researchers' time, time devoted to control and approval. On the question of whether it is serious that French researchers go abroad, he made the same remark as Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet: it is not serious that they leave, it is rather that they do not come back! Indeed, the material conditions and the freedom of research are such that very often they prefer to stay and work outside France (in the company, the bonuses that reward inventors range from 150 to 800 euros, whereas the discovery can make millions for the employer).
Another battlehorse: producing in France, because he believes that a national strategy is necessary through a "strategy commission" and the creation of an "independent label" to enable consumers to identify the French share of products.
It also intends to defend SMEs, with the creation of decentralised investment support banks associated with local authorities. Other measures include the provision of two years' free employment for all companies with fewer than 50 employees (cost: €2 billion, balanced, in his view, by the abolition of the tax exemption for overtime), and tax incentives to encourage networking between large companies and SMEs. A proponent of co-management within companies, he proposes that employee representatives be included in the boards of directors of companies with more than 500 employees with voting rights, national negotiations on the renewal of the social climate and employee participation in strategic thinking.
A few proposals from his program:
6th proposal - produce - Networking between large companies and SMEs: "The former have control over manufacturing processes, patents, applied research, large commercial networks, the latter have the capacity for innovation. Incentive through the creation of a tax advantage when a large company has set up an investment structure for SMEs or taken a stake in such a structure. »
13th proposal - produce - Creation of an innovation tax credit: "Research is a key factor. But innovation, in manufacturing processes, in design is at least as important, especially in SMEs. I will propose the creation of an innovation tax credit, parallel to the research tax credit".
14th proposal - produce - A status for business angels: "In the world of innovative companies, there is a very wide disparity between the advantages granted to private equity funds, whose acquisition interests are tax-deductible, and business angels, who support start-up creations, do not receive any equivalent tax benefits. They must therefore be allowed to deduct any losses of these developing companies from their own taxable income, at least partially, during the first years of their investment. »
For more information on François Bayrou's program
Marine Le pen and innovation
"Reduce in five years legal immigration from 200,000 entries per year to 10,000, focusing on the talents that will allow the influence of our country and innovation." According to her, the 10,000 mark is not randomly set... It corresponds to the "incompressible threshold allowing highly qualified immigration in sectors where we really lack skills in France".
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Marine Le Pen states that innovation is essential to project oneself into the future: "Research cooperation between private and public players is not working well in France, and our overall R&D effort is insufficient.
Its hobbyhorse: the role of the state must be strong. "The strategic state that we want to restore will have as its main mission to be the partner of SMEs."
To stimulate innovation and research:
* Make the research tax credit (3.2 billion euros per year in tax expenditure) conditional on the beneficiary company maintaining research and development centres in France in full.
The State must spearhead the reindustrialization of France:
* Establishment of a Strategic Planning for Reindustrialization directly attached to the Prime Minister, involving universities and grandes écoles, industrial sectors and representatives of the State. It will organize the reindustrialization of France. This policy will be carried out in parallel with the implementation of reasonable border protection against unfair international competition (targeted customs duties and import quotas).
* Overseas economic development strategy.
* Political implementation of the French equivalent of the "small business act" granting French SMEs priority access to local and national public markets.
The strong state that fights against fraud, cartels and abuses of dominant position :
* Fight against commercial fraud (falsification of safety, environmental, social standards) to ensure fair competition.
* Action at the level of central purchasing bodies to restore a balance between independent trade and mass distribution. Exclusive links between central purchasing bodies and large distributors will be prohibited.
* Establishment by law of a ceiling applicable to the amount of bank charges invoiced to bank customers (households and companies).
For more information on Marine Le Pen's program