In 2015, the then Minister of the Environment, Energy and the Sea set up a committee to assess, in particular, projects and compliance with the carbon budget and low-carbon strategy, multi-year energy programming projects for metropolitan France, etc. To support this assessment mission, a new thesis was started at the end of 2015 and early 2016 at the Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées (CMA) of Mines ParisTech with Ariane Millot on the question of "Exploration of decarbonation levers on a national scale: from ambition to achievement, what is the relative balance between public policies and civil society centred on France" . This thesis explores the conditions for influencing the upward trends in greenhouse gas emissions at the national level. Questions are addressed from different perspectives: from the perspective of public policies and their application, but also by considering the impact of solutions initiated at other levels by civil society (companies, associations, citizens).
Pfirst engineering school in France by its volume of partnership research, MINES ParisTechmember of thePSL UniversityThrough research and innovation, it aims to meet the scientific and technological challenges of tomorrow, particularly in the fields of energy transition and predictive sciences for the industry of the future.
Following a scientific preparatory class, Ariane has decided to join the civil engineering program MINES ParisTech in 2011 to continue its studies. in "one of the best French general engineering schools". Her personal convictions on energy-related issues led her, from her third year at the school, to specialize, and thus choose the option "Machines and Energy".
With her engineering degree in hand, Ariane naturally decided to work in the energy sector. In 2014, she joined Dalkia, where she is in charge of logistics and short-term trading in the gas markets. After this initial professional experience, she wanted to go further to understand the real societal issues related to climate change, and so she returned to her first love: research.
She then started a thesis at the Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées de MINES ParisTech in Sophia Antipolis, under the supervision of Nadia Maïzi, Professor and Director of the CMA.
A thesis to respond to the challenges of climate change
Since March 2016, Ariane has been working on a thesis entitled "Conditions for the Emergence of the Energy Transition: France, Sweden, Germany" which she will present in 2019. In this way, she reflects on the solutions that can be brought to the fight against climate change, the great challenge of the 21st century. "The energy we use must become decarbonated. For the moment, the French energy system is largely based on fossil fuels. Reflecting on this radical transformation represents a particularly stimulating challenge. »
Ariane is working on a technical-economic model of the French energy system, TIMES-EN, developed at the Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées since 2004. It allows to represent the functioning of the energy system in its different sub-sectors (building / heating, hot water; transport / car / train/airplane train: industry / production of materials; electricity / wind power, nuclear ...), taking into account the costs of the different technologies and their technical characteristics (efficiency, lifetime, ...).
The trajectories provided by the model can be compared with those provided by similar models developed in other European countries. Sweden, for example, is one of the countries most advanced on climate change and has one of the lowest per capita CO2 emissions in Europe while maintaining strong GDP growth. "This shows that it is possible to reconcile energy transition and economic development! A scholarship from IRIS Global Studies of PSL allowed me to go to Sweden for my thesis and to be closer to the field. »
This prospective model makes it possible to provide information to public decision-makers, the Ministry of Ecology and all stakeholders on the evolution of the energy system and thus guide them in their decision-making: What are the benefits of such decisions? What are the advantages of such decisions? What are the conditions under which this or that objective can be achieved? ...
"The climate emergency is a reality, and in order to make decisions, public authorities need to rely on our research. However, I have to say that in three years of thesis work, things are not moving as fast as one might hope. »
A future between research and public policy
"Even though it is difficult to stay in the research sector, it is still exciting and decisive. Ariane would like to be able to interface between research and public policy and thus make the link between scientific production and information for decision-makers; why not in international organisations or large companies in line with her research and convictions.