Yesterday, Tuesday, April 14, and for two days, theADEME holds two days of reflection on renewable energies in the electricity mix. The government agency unveils a study on the photograph of a France where electricity will come from 100% of renewable energies that can meet the projected consumption by 2050. A serious and realistic study but which disturbs, according to Greenpeace ...
This study was financed by ADEME, with the contribution of the Directorate General for Energy and Climate, in the framework of reflections on the precise conditions and impacts that the implementation of an electricity supply with a high penetration rate of RE (between 80% and 100 % in energy) by 2050 would have on the horizon and in consultation with institutional actors: the Ministry of Sustainable Development and the Directorate General for Energy-Climate, companies (GDF, EDF and the Réseau de Transport de l'Electricité, RTE), as well as experts such as NégaWatt or Hespul, but also NGOs such as Greenpeace. In particular, it is RTE, the system operator which publishes the French electricity balance sheet every year, which has made its resources available to simulate the real-time balance between power supply and demand, to ensure that this 100% renewable network would supply electricity to users at all times (industry, TGV, businesses, households, etc.).
The issues addressed in the study include the following questions:
- Under what constraints is it possible to supply 100% renewable electricity?
- What are the optimal energy mixes, associated with the various projections of technological developments, consumption, etc.?
- How are the different renewable means of production distributed geographically?
- What are the economic impacts of a renewable 100% mix?
The results of the study thus made it possible to assess the conditions and constraints associated with the prospect of achieving a highly renewable mix by 2050. On the one hand, it was verified that a renewable 100% mix could be robust to unfavourable weather conditions (notably windless periods over
the whole country, cold spells, or drought).
On the other hand, the possibility of achieving a 100% renewable electricity supply has been studied for several scenarios of societal changes, in terms of acceptability levels or demand control.
Moreover, while the mix of technologies used is not an absolute prerequisite for achieving a 100% renewable target, it has been shown that the complementarity of solar and wind power, as well as the combination of storage of varying lengths of time, is one of the essential parameters for controlling the annual cost of electricity supply.
Many avenues remain to be explored today and in the coming months new case studies may be considered in order to answer questions such as :
– What would be the impacts of flexible industrial consumption? :
o Could the surplus be better valued, and in greater quantities?
o To what extent do the modelled foreign 80% RE mixes constrain the French optimised fleet?
o What would be the socio-economic effects associated with achieving such a mix, including the macroeconomic component (growth, creation of jobs, etc.)?
of jobs, redistributive effects on other sectors of the economy), and the energy/environment component (measures of externalities, energy independence)?
- How to complete the model with constraints not yet taken into account? :
o How to take into account a possible additional cost related to the extension of the distribution network?
o What would be the impact of a 100% RE mix on the distribution network?
o What are the impacts if we extend the use of synthetic gas produced by power to gas to non-electric uses (mobility in particular)?
o What would be the impacts of low social acceptability in relation to the network, land and marine occupation?
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A disturbing study for the nuclear industry, according to Greenpeace
The publication of this study would have been hesitant because of "the sensitivity of the political context of publication" to postpone its release indefinitely. Today's Greenpeace article explains why:
"Mediapart, as early as last week, made it public (the study) by revealing that a 100% renewable electricity mix is very serious and realistic. It is not the seriousness of the study that is being questioned. It is what it shows that is bothering the nuclear industry in the context of the energy transition act, which, for the first time in 60 years, will choose to shut down nuclear reactors in France.
100% renewable electricity in France, feasible and economically affordable: First of all, and this is the most dazzling result, ADEME is for the first time making an inventory of the potential for renewables in France - a potential that is almost unique in Europe - largely capable of meeting the country's electricity needs. On the other hand, this renewable electricity system would offer operating costs that are largely competitive compared to those of maintaining a nuclear system like the one that exists today.
The ADEME study establishes a cost (excluding tax) of electricity from renewable sources in 2050 of between €100 and €120/Mwh. This is no more expensive than the cost of electricity produced by EPR-type nuclear power, which is already between 100 and 120€/Mwh (with a risk of an increase in the cost of electricity from renewable sources). in light of recent events ...), or by renovated old nuclear power (€133/MWh).
ADEME goes further than the Greenpeace scenario: In 2013, we published thehe first Greenpeace energy transition scenario for France.
In terms of wind production potential, the ADEME scenario is in line with that of Greenpeace: according to ADEME, in 2050, 250 to 300Twh of electricity will come from onshore or offshore wind power. We estimated this figure at 276TWh. This would require the installation of 15 to 20,000 onshore wind turbines, an objective that is largely achievable when we see that more than half of the world's electricity is generated from onshore wind.ept out of ten wind farm residents are satisfied with the installation of wind turbines.
ADEME is most promising in terms of solar production: between 60 and 100 TWh, according to its estimates, compared with only 52 TWh in the Greenpeace scenario published in 2013. The ADEME's projection is today quite legitimate in view of the strong cost reductions identified over the last two years.
Knowledge is power: On May 19th the debate on the Energy Transition Law will resume in the National Assembly and the text should be voted in July. A few months will then pass before the publication of the multiannual energy programming, PPE, which will describe the government's action plan until 2018. This plan should provide the means to accelerate the development of renewable energies and the number of closed reactors to reach 50% of nuclear power by 2025, in accordance with Mr. Holland's commitments!
This ADEME study shows that even within the government itself, no one can ignore the potential and benefits of renewables.
At this time of debate, it is more crucial than ever to carry out a transparent and rigorous inventory of the costs and technical performance of renewables, and to compare them with other means of electricity production such as nuclear power.
The United Nations climate conference in Paris at the end of the year must remind the government that the solution to climate change is action for renewables, and that this starts at the national level. »
(Source : Greempeace /14 April 2015)
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